The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) Model: a Critical Review and Suggestions for its Use


The Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR) model is a four-level, taxonomy-based approach for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in K-12 settings (Puentedura 2006). Despite its increasing popularity among practitioners, the SAMR model is not currently represented in the extant literature. To focus the ongoing conversation regarding K-12 educators’ understanding and implementation of technology, we provide a critical review of the SAMR model using theory and prior research. We focus on the absence of context, its hierarchical structure, and the emphasis placed on product over process and conclude with suggestions to guide educators’ and researchers’ technology integration efforts.